lunes, 6 de abril de 2020

CONDITIONALS IN ENGLISH



When in time
if
This is the condition
(if clause)
result /consequence / effect
(main clause)
type



always


If/When

Verb tense: SIMPLE PRESENT/CONTINUOUS
you heat ice
I play tennis with John
I am studying
Verb tense: SIMPLE PRESENT
                                                   it melts and turns into water.
I always win.
I never answer the phone.



‘0’



SCIENTIFIC TRUTH

PERSONAL TRUTH


Present /
future



If



Verb tense: SIMPLE PRESENT

you don’t leave
it rains tomorrow
you think she is ill
he is interested in the idea
you want to lose weight
you see Mary

Verb tense: SIMPLE FUTURE (WILL + base verb of verb) or MODAL + BASE FORM
I will/shall call the police.
the match will be cancelled.
you should call the doctor.
he might ask us to do a demonstration.
you must/should exercise more.
could you ask her to call me?



‘1’


Certain
/
Probable
/
Possible


Present/
future


If


Verb tense: SIMPLE PAST (subjunctive – one step back in time)
I had time
John were here
I were you
he had a work permit
I knew Mary’s number
Verb tense: MODAL (usually would) + BASE FORM OF VERB
I would call Mary.
he would help us.
I would tell him the truth.
He could get a job here.
I could phone and ask her to come.


‘2’


Improbable
hypothetical


past



If
Verb tense: PAST PERFECT SIMPLE/CONTINUOUS
I’d known about your party
we hadn’t eaten so much
John had found her earlier
John had found her earlier   I hadn’t been driving so fast
I hadn’t been wearing a seatbelt

Verb tense: MODAL (usually would) + PERFECT INFINITIVE
I would have come.
we wouldn’t have been so ill.
he could have saved her life.(ability)
he might have saved her life.(possibility) I wouldn’t have had the accident.      I would (certainty) / could (probability) / might (possibility) have been seriously injured when I crashed into the wall.




‘3’



Impossible
hypothetical

This table does not take into account all verb constructions in the conditional.  However, it covers more possibilities than usually found in worksheets of this type.


Fill in the correct tense

  1. The towns _______________ (not/be destroy) if the volcano hadn’t been so destructive.
  2. If the inhabitants ______________ (evacuate) early enough, the terrible disaster would have been averted.
  3. If the weather is gloomy, we ___________ (stay) in the hotel and read.
  4. If I heard a loud, shrill, frightening noise while at the beach, I ____________ (return) to the hotel immediately.
  5. A tsunami would be set off, if a nearly volcano ______________ (erupt).
  6. If the curious children and adults hadn’t gone on the beach to investigate the strange sound, they _________________ (lose) their lives.
  7. The disaster wouldn’t have been so terrible, if all the hotels __________________ (prepare) for the possibility of a tsunami.
  8. If you want to be safe during a tsunami, you _______________ (move) miles inland.
  9. When the sea draws back it means that a tsunami _______________ (come) soon.
  10. Many lives would have been saved, if the guest at the hotel ______________ (take) precautions.
  11. If there is a serious tsunami, the coastline __________________ (be) damaged.
  12. If the scientists who had observed the ash from volcano had alerted the nearby countries, the extent of the disaster ____________ (be) much less.
  13. If there were strong winds along with a tsunami, there ___________ (be) tremendous damage to the coastline.
  14. If scientists predict tsunamis, they ___________ (save) many lives.
KEY:

1. The towns wouldn’t have been destroyed (not/be destroy) if the volcano hadn’t been so destructive.
2. If the inhabitants had evacuated (evacuate) early enough, the terrible disaster would have been averted.
3. If the weather is gloomy, we will stay  (stay) in the hotel and read.
4. If I heard a loud, shrill, frightening noise while at the beach, I would return (return) to the hotel immediately.
5. A tsunami would be set off, if a nearly volcano erupted (erupt).
6. If the curious children and adults hadn’t gone on the beach to investigate the strange sound, they wouldn’t have lost (not/lose) their lives.
7. The disaster wouldn’t have been so terrible, if all the hotels had prepared(prepare) for the possibility of a tsunami.
8. If you want to be safe during a tsunami, you will move/should move (move) miles inland.
9. When the sea draws back it means that a tsunami will come/will be coming (come) soon.
10. Many lives would have been saved, if the guest at the hotel had taken (take) precautions.
11. If there is a serious tsunami, the coastline will be (be) damaged.
12. If the scientists who had observed the ash from volcano had alerted the nearby countries, the extent of the disaster would have been (be) much less.
13. If there were strong winds along with a tsunami, there would be (be) tremendous damage to the coastline.
14. If scientists predict tsunamis, they will save (save) many lives.

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